We describe a Lanczos-based algorithm for approximating the product of a rational matrix function with a vector. This algorithm, which we call the Lanczos method for optimal rational matrix function approximation (Lanczos-OR), returns the optimal approximation from a given Krylov subspace in a norm depending on the rational function's denominator, and it can be computed using the information from a slightly larger Krylov subspace. We also provide a low-memory implementation which only requires storing a number of vectors proportional to the denominator degree of the rational function. Finally, we show that Lanczos-OR can be used to derive algorithms for computing other matrix functions, including the matrix sign function and quadrature-based rational function approximations. In many cases, it improves on the approximation quality of prior approaches, including the standard Lanczos method, with little additional computational overhead.
- Krylov subspace method
- matrix function approximation
- optimal approximation
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