Low-Temperature Plasma Short Exposure to Decontaminate Peri-Implantitis-Related Multispecies Biofilms on Titanium Surfaces in Vitro

Beatriz H.D. Panariello, Drashty P. Mody, George J. Eckert, Lukasz Witek, Paulo Coelho, Simone Duarte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. The use of low-temperature plasma (LTP) is a novel approach to treating peri-implantitis. LTP disrupts the biofilm while conditioning the surrounding host environment for bone growth around the infected implant. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of LTP on newly formed (24 h), intermediate (3 days), and mature (7 days) peri-implant-related biofilms formed on titanium surfaces. Methods. Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104), Porphyromonas gingivalis (W83), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 35037), and Veillonella dispar (ATCC 17748) were cultivated in brain heart infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract, hemin (0.5 mg/mL), and menadione (5 mg/mL) and kept at 37°C in anaerobic conditions for 24 h. Species were mixed for a final concentration of 105 colony forming units (CFU)/mL (OD=0.01), and the bacterial suspension was put in contact with titanium specimens (7.5 mm in diameter by 2 mm in thickness) for biofilm formation. Biofilms were treated with LTP for 1, 3, and 5 min at 3 or 10 mm from plasma tip to sample. Controls were those having no treatment (negative control, NC) and argon flow under the same LTP conditions. Positive controls were those treated with 14 μg/mL amoxicillin and 140 μg/mL metronidazole individually or combined and 0.12% chlorhexidine (n=6 per group). Biofilms were evaluated by CFU, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Comparisons among bacteria; 24 h, 3-day, and 7-day biofilms; and treatments for each biofilm were made. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were applied (α=0.05). Results. Bacterial growth was observed in all NC groups, corroborated by FISH. LTP treatment significantly reduced all bacteria species compared to the NC in all biofilm periods and treatment conditions (p≤0.016), and CLSM corroborated these results. Conclusion. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that LTP application effectively reduces peri-implantitis-related multispecies biofilms on titanium surfaces in vitro.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1549774
JournalBioMed Research International
StatePublished - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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