Magic sandwich echo relaxation mapping of anisotropic systems

Ravinder R. Regatte, Mark E. Schweitzer, Alexej Jerschow, Ravinder Reddy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The main objective of this article was (i) to refocus the residual dipolar and quadrupolar interactions in anisotropic tissues employing magic sandwich echo (MSE) imaging and to compare the results with that of conventional spin-echo (SE) imaging, and (ii) to quantify MSE relaxation and dispersion characteristics in bovine Achilles tendon and compare with spin-lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame (T). Magic sandwich echo weighted images are ∼75-100% higher in signal-to-noise ratio than the corresponding T2-weighted images. Magic sandwich echo relaxation times varied from 13±2 to 19±3 ms (mean±S.D.), depending upon the structural location of tendon. T2 relaxation times only varied from 4±1 to 10±3 ms (mean±S.D.) on the same corresponding locations. Magic sandwich echo provides ∼100% enhancement in relaxation times compared to T2. Preliminary results based on bovine Achilles tendon and cartilage specimens suggest that the MSE technique has potential for refocusing residual dipolar as well as quadrupolar interactions in anisotropic systems and yields higher intensities than conventional SE imaging as well as T-encoded imaging, especially at low-burst pulse amplitudes (250 and 500 Hz).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-438
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2007


  • Achilles tendon
  • Dipolar contrast
  • Magic sandwich echo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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