Male-to-female transgender youth: Gender expression milestones, gender atypicality, victimization, and parents' responses

Arnold H. Grossman, Anthony R. D'Augelli, Nickolas P. Salter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Thirty-one male-to-female transgender youth reported on their gender identity, gender expression, gender atypicality, and their parents' responses. Youth felt, acted, and were told they were different between eight and nine years of age. Many were called sissies and told to change their behavior by parents; more gender-atypical youth reported childhood parental abuse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-92
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of GLBT Family Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 19 2006



  • Gender
  • Parent
  • Transgender
  • Victimization
  • Youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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