Biomolecular condensation has emerged as a key organizing principle governing the formation of membraneless cellular assemblies. Revealing the mechanism of formation of biomolecular condensates requires the quantitative examination of their growth kinetics. Here, we introduce mass balance imaging (MBI) as a general method to study compositional growth dynamics based on fluorescent images of multicomponent clusters. MBI allows the visualization and measurement of composition-dependent growth rates of biomolecular condensates and other assemblies. We provide a computational pipeline and demonstrate the applicability of our method by investigating cortical assemblies containing N-WASP (WSP-1) and F-actin that appear during oocyte cortex activation in C. elegans. In general, the method can be broadly implemented to identify interactions that underlie growth kinetics of multicomponent assemblies in vivo and in vitro.