May the force be with you (Or not): The immune system under microgravity

Mei Elgindi, Jiranuwat Sapudom, Ibrahim Hamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Al-Sayegh, Weiqiang Chen, Anna Garcia-Sabaté, Jeremy C.M. Teo

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review


All terrestrial organisms have evolved and adapted to thrive under Earth’s gravitational force. Due to the increase of crewed space flights in recent years, it is vital to understand how the lack of gravitational forces affects organisms. It is known that astronauts who have been exposed to microgravity suffer from an array of pathological conditions including an impaired immune system, which is one of the most negatively affected by microgravity. However, at the cellular level a gap in knowledge exists, limiting our ability to understand immune impairment in space. This review highlights the most significant work done over the past 10 years detailing the effects of microgravity on cellular aspects of the immune system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1941
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Immune cells
  • Immunology
  • Mechanotransduction
  • Microgravity
  • Space biology
  • Space research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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