McVittie's legacy: Black holes in an expanding universe

Nemanja Kaloper, Matthew Kleban, Damien Martin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    We prove that a class of solutions to Einstein's equations-originally discovered by McVittie in 1933-includes regular black holes embedded in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. If the cosmology is dominated at late times by a positive cosmological constant, the metric is regular everywhere on and outside the black hole horizon and away from the big-bang singularity, and the solutions asymptote in the future and near the horizon to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. For solutions without a positive cosmological constant the would-be horizon is a weak null singularity.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number104044
    JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
    Issue number10
    StatePublished - May 26 2010

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
    • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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