Measurement and modeling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion

Michael S. Landy, Laurence T. Maloney, Elizabeth B. Johnston, Mark Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Various visual cues provide information about depth and shape in a scene. When several of these cues are simultaneously available in a single location in the scene, the visual system attempts to combine them. In this paper, we discuss three key issues relevant to the experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision: cue promotion, dynamic weighting of cues, and robustness of cue combination. We review recent psychophysical studies of human depth cue combination in light of these issues. We organize the discussion and review as the development of a model of the depth cue combination process termed modified weak fusion (MWF). We relate the MWF framework to Bayesian theories of cue combination. We argue that the MWF model is consistent with previous experimental results and is a parsimonious summary of these results. While the MWF model is motivated by normative considerations, it is primarily intended to guide experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision. We describe experimental methods, analogous to perturbation analysis, that permit us to analyze depth cue combination in novel ways. In particular these methods allow us to investigate the key issues we have raised. We summarize recent experimental tests of the MWF framework that use these methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-412
Number of pages24
JournalVision research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1995


  • Depth Multiple cues
  • Sensor fusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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