Measurement of the cosmic ray hadron spectrum up to 30 TeV at mountain altitude: The primary proton spectrum

M. Aglietta, B. Alessandro, P. Antonioli, F. Arneodo, L. Bergamasco, M. Bertaina, C. Castagnoli, A. Castellina, A. Chiavassa, G. Cini Castagnoli, B. D'Ettorre Piazzoli, G. Di Sciascio, W. Fulgione, P. Galeotti, P. L. Ghia, M. Iacovacci, G. Mannocchi, C. Morello, G. Navarra, L. RiccatiO. Saavedra, G. C. Trinchero, S. Valchierotti, P. Vallania, S. Vernetto, C. Vigorito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The flux of cosmic ray hadrons at the atmospheric depth of 820 g cm-2 has been measured by means of the EAS-TOP hadron calorimeter (Campo Imperatore, National Gran Sasso Laboratories, 2005 m a.s.l.).The hadron spectrum is well described by a single power law:Sh(Eh)= (2.25±0.21±0.34sys)×10-7 Eh/1000 (-2.79±0.05) m-2 s-1 sr-1 GeV-1 overthe energy range 30 GeV-30 TeV. The procedure and the accuracy of the measurement are discussed.The primary proton spectrum is derived from the data by using the CORSIKA/QGSJET code to compute the local hadron flux as a function of the primary proton spectrum and to calculate and subtract the heavy nuclei contribution (basing on direct measurements). Over a wide energy range E0=0.5-50 TeV its best fit is given by a single power law: S(E0)= (9.8±1.1±1.6sys)×10-5 E0/1000 (-2.80±0.06) m-2 s-1 sr-1 GeV-1. The validity of the CORSIKA/QGSJET code for such application has been checked using the EAS-TOP and KASCADE experimental data by reproducing the ratio of the measured hadron fluxes at the two experimental depths (820 and 1030 gcm-2 respectively) at better than 10% in the considered energy range.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)329-338
Number of pages10
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2003


  • Cosmic rays
  • Hadrons
  • High energy calorimetry
  • Primary protons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics


Dive into the research topics of 'Measurement of the cosmic ray hadron spectrum up to 30 TeV at mountain altitude: The primary proton spectrum'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this