Measurements and models for radio path loss and penetration loss in and around homes and trees at 5.85 GHz

Greg Durgin, Theodore S. Rappaport, Hao Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper contains measured data and empirical models for 5.85-GHz radio propagation path loss in and around residential areas for the newly allocated U.S. National Information Infrastructure (Nil) band. Three homes and two stands of trees were studied for outdoor path loss, tree loss, and house penetration loss in a narrow-band measurement campaign that included 270 local area path loss measurements and over 276 000 instantaneous power measurements. Outdoor transmitters at a height of 5.5 m were placed at distances between 30 and 210 m from the homes, to simulate typical neighborhood base stations mounted atop utility poles. All path loss data are presented graphically and coupled with site-specific information. We develop measurement-based path loss models for propagation prediction. The measurements and models may aid the development of futuristic outdoor-to-indoor residential communication systems for wireless internet access, wireless cable distribution, and wireless local loops.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1484-1496
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1998


  • Building penetration
  • In-building propagation
  • Path loss
  • Residential wireless communications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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