Measuring Cultural Awareness of Nursing Students: A First Step Toward Cultural Competency

Barbara Krainovich-Miller, Jennifer M. Yost, Carolyn Auerhahn, Robert G. Norman, May Dobal, Mary Rosedale, Melissa Lowry, Christine Moffa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This pilot study was designed to measure nursing students’ level of cultural awareness. It replicated phase II of Rew, Becker, Cookston, Khosropour, & Martinez's (2003) methodological study that developed and tested a Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS). Using a cross-sectional design, the CAS was distributed to nursing students in three nursing programs’ (bachelor's, master's, doctoral) beginning and end courses. Cronbach's alpha for the CAS Total instrument was 0.869, with subscale scores ranging from 0.687 to 0.902, comparable to the findings of Rew et al. Given the limitations of this study, results must be viewed with a degree of caution. Recommendations include further educational research in the form of psychometric testing of the CAS among nursing students, including refinement of both the CAS instrument and the demographic tool. The authors also recommend that studies be conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the CAS with nurses in the health care arena.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)250-258
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Transcultural Nursing
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS)
  • Purnell Model for Cultural Competence
  • cultural awareness
  • cultural competency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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