OBJECTIVE: To investigate how cognitive function domains change in phenotypic networks in cognitive deterioration and improvement groups.
DESIGN: Secondary data analysis.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Respondents in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) who were 70 years or older at the time of the data collection in 2000 or 2002.
METHODS: This study used data from the ADAMS in Wave A and Wave B. We assessed 12 cognitive function domains. Latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) and the cross-lagged panel network model were used to the dynamic interactions of the 12 cognitive function domains over time in both the deterioration and improvement groups.
RESULTS: A total of 252 participants were included in the final analysis. LPTA identified 5 subgroups and categorized all samples into 3 main categories: improvement group (n = 61), deterioration group (n = 54), and no change group (n = 137). "D9: psychomotor processing" showed the largest value of out-strength in the deterioration group (r = 0.941) and improvement group (r = 0.969). The strongest direct positive effect in the deterioration group was "C9: psychomotor processing" -> "C8: attention" (β = 0.39 [0.00, 1.13]). In the improvement group, the strongest direct positive effect was "C9 = psychomotor processing" -> "C7 = visual memory" (β = 0.69 [0.07, 1.30]).
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Psychomotor processing affected other cognitive domains, and it played a crucial role in changes of cognitive function. The paths of psychomotor processing to attention and visual memory were found to be major factors in cognitive deterioration and improvement. Targeting psychomotor processing may lead to the development of more effective and precise interventions.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of the American Medical Directors Association|
|Early online date||Sep 25 2023|
|State||E-pub ahead of print - Sep 25 2023|