Meloxicam improves object recognition memory and modulates glial activation after splenectomy in mice

Angela R. Kamer, Samuel M. Galoyan, Michael Haile, Richard Kline, Allal Boutajangout, Yong Sheng Li, Alex Bekker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context Surgery-induced neuroinflammation has been implicated in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Objective To test the hypothesis that meloxicam, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, preserves postoperative cognitive function and inhibits surgery-induced neuroinflammation in a mouse model. Design A mouse model of splenectomy-induced inflammation. Methods Sixty Swiss Webster male mice (6-8 week old) were randomised into six groups that underwent splenectomy. Animals in groups 1-4 were tested once on day 1, 5, 9 or 14 to determine the time course of delayed transient cognitive dysfunction associated with splenectomy. Animals in groups 5 and 6 were tested once on day 5 or 9 to determine the ability of the NSAID meloxicam to attenuate cognitive dysfunction. Intervention Animals in groups 1-4 received one dose 500 μl intraperitoneal physiological saline 24 h after splenectomy. Animals in groups 5 and 6 received one dose of intraperitoneal meloxicam (60mgkg in 500 μl saline) 24 h after splenectomy. Main outcome measures Short-term working memory as determined by Object Recognition Test (ORT) index on days 1, 5, 9 and 14 was the first main outcome. Tomato lectin staining histochemistry of glial cells was assessed on days 1, 5, 9 and 14 as a second main outcome. Results Compared with day 1 (group 1), the mean ORT indices at day 5 (group 2) and day 9 (group 3) were decreased by 27.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9 to 54.1%, P=0.04] and 23.8% (95% CI, 4.3 to 51.9%, P=0.09), respectively. At day 5 (group 5) and day 9 (group 6), the ORT indices in the meloxicam groups were reduced by 6.6% (95% CI: -11.4 to 24.5%) and 4.3% (95% CI: -25.3 to 34.0). Thus, the administration of meloxicam attenuated the decrease in ORT indices (P=0.031). Histochemical staining with tomato lectin showed features of microglia activation at day 5 and 9, which was reduced by the administration of meloxicam. Conclusion These findings suggest that COX-2-dependent mechanisms may play a role in the development of POCD. This effect may be dependent on the modulation of glial cell activation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)332-337
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Anaesthesiology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2012


  • Cyclooxygenase-2
  • Glial activation
  • Meloxicam
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Postoperative cognitive dysfunction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Meloxicam improves object recognition memory and modulates glial activation after splenectomy in mice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this