Membrane distillation-Principles, applications, configurations, design, and implementation

Abdullah Alkhudhiri, Nidal Hilal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology for treating saline water and wastewater with high rejection factors, which cannot be accomplished by conventional technologies. MD is a thermally driven separation process in which only the vapor molecules pass through a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The driving force in the MD process is the vapor pressure difference induced by the temperature difference across the membrane surface. This chapter provides a comprehensive study of MD. The first part gives an introduction, including general information about water problems, existing water technology, and historical review for MD. MD configuration and modules, membrane properties, and membrane characterization will be illustrated in the second and third parts. The transport phenomena relating to mass and heat transfer for different MD types are also presented. Operating parameters and MD application are covered in this chapter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEmerging Technologies for Sustainable Desalination Handbook
Number of pages52
ISBN (Electronic)9780128167120
ISBN (Print)9780128158180
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Desalination
  • Energy efficiency
  • Heat transfer
  • Mass transfer
  • Membrane distillation
  • Permeate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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