At the turn of the twentieth century, many chemists, physicists, and biologists were studying the barrier properties of membranes. However, it was not until 20 years later when the first laboratory-scale membranes were manufactured and 50 years later when the most significant industrial breakthrough of asymmetric membranes led to greater application of membrane processes. Over the last 100 years, membrane processes have been established as an essential addition to conventional separation processes such as distillation and chemical extraction. Membrane processes have many advantages over other separation techniques that have led to their application in a wide range of industries including water treatment, biotechnology, food, pharmaceutical, and energy generation. The list continues to grow.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - 2016|