Membrane modules for large-scale salinity gradient process applications

Sarper Sarp, Nidal Hilal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Salinity gradient processes have a great potential to reduce the energy consumption in water treatment, especially when high salinity waters are in question. Even though the theoretical approaches for the salinity gradient processes are quite strong, there are still several issues before these processes can be applied in full scale. One of the most important challenges between theoretical and full scale applications is the development of commercial size membrane modules. In this chapter, we have summarised the previous approaches and attempts to develop economically feasible and thermodynamically efficient membrane modules. We have focused on the flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes, and their large scale applications. Flat sheet membranes have distinct advantages when it comes to engineering and optimising the support layer thicknesses and structures, however the spiral wound module design has a serious drawback based on the loss of active surface area. On the other hand, hollow fiber membrane applications, which have superior active surface area utilisation, are limited by the pressure drop within the fibers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMembrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9780444639615
ISBN (Print)9780444639622
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Active surface area
  • Flat sheet membrane
  • Hollow fiber membrane
  • Membrane modules
  • Pressure drop
  • Salinity gradient processes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Chemical Engineering


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