Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), a transmembrane proteinase with a short cytoplasmic tail, is a major effector of extracellular matrix remodeling. Genetic silencing of MT1-MMP in mouse (Mmp14−/−) and man causes dwarfism, osteopenia, arthritis, and lipodystrophy, abnormalities ascribed to defective collagen turnover. We have previously shown non-proteolytic functions of MT1-MMP mediated by its cytoplasmic tail, where the unique tyrosine (Y573) controls intracellular signaling. The Y573D mutation blocks TIMP-2/MT1-MMP-induced Erk1/2 and Akt signaling without affecting proteolytic activity. Here, we report that a mouse with the MT1-MMP Y573D mutation (Mmp14Y573D/Y573D) shows abnormalities similar to but also different from those of Mmp14−/− mice. Skeletal stem cells (SSC) of Mmp14Y573D/Y573D mice show defective differentiation consistent with the mouse phenotype, which is rescued by wild-type SSC transplant. These results provide the first in vivo demonstration that MT1-MMP modulates bone, cartilage, and fat homeostasis by controlling SSC differentiation through a mechanism independent of proteolysis.
- Cell Biology
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