Metabolic dysfunction in Emirati subjects in Abu Dhabi: Relationship to levels of soluble RAGEs

Abdishakur Abdulle, Claire K. Inman, Abdelkarim Saleh, Mohamed Noshi, Divya Galani, Laila Abdelwareth, Habiba Alsafar, Abubaker Elfatih, Hefsa Al Shamsi, Raghib Ali, Huilin Li, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Mahmoud M. Benbarka, Mohamed H. Hassan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The United Arab Emirates is experiencing increasing rates of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications. As soluble levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, (sRAGE), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), the latter an alternatively spliced form of AGER (the gene encoding RAGE), have been reported to be associated with T2D and its complications, we tested for potential relationships between these factors and T2D status in Emirati subjects. Methods: In a case-control study, we recruited Emirati subjects with T2D and controls from the Sheikh Khalifa Medical City in Abu Dhabi. Anthropomorphic characteristics, levels of plasma sRAGE and esRAGE, and routine chemistry variables were measured. Results: Two hundred and sixteen T2D subjects and 215 control subjects (mean age, 57.4 ± 12.1 vs. 50.7 ± 15.4 years; P < 0.0001, respectively) were enrolled. Univariate analyses showed that levels of sRAGE were significantly lower in the T2D vs. control subjects (1033.9 ± 545.3 vs. 1169.2 ± 664.1 pg/ml, respectively; P = 0.02). Multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, pulse, body mass index, Waist/Hip circumference ratio, fasting blood glucose, HDL, LDL, insulin, triglycerides, Vitamin D and urea levels revealed that the difference in sRAGE levels between T2D and control subjects remained statistically-significant, P = 0.03, but not after including estimated glomerular filtration rate in the model, P = 0.14. There were no significant differences in levels of esRAGE. Levels of plasma insulin were significantly higher in the control vs. the T2D subjects (133.6 ± 149.9 vs. 107.6 ± 93.3 pg/L. respectively; P = 0.01, after adjustment for age and sex). Conclusion/discussion: Levels of sRAGE, but not esRAGE, were associated with T2D status in Abu Dhabi, but not after correction for eGFR. Elevated levels of plasma insulin in both control and T2D subjects suggests the presence of metabolic dysfunction, even in subjects without diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100192
JournalJournal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology
StatePublished - Jun 2019


  • Insulin resistance
  • Kidney function
  • Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE)
  • Soluble RAGE (sRAGE)
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • esRAGE (endogenous secretory RAGE)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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