Minimally processed recycled yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia for dental applications: Effect of sintering temperature on glass infiltration

Tiago Moreira Bastos Campos, Claudinei dos Santos, Larissa Marcia Martins Alves, Ernesto B. Benalcazar-Jalkh, Henrico Badaoui Strazzi-Sahyon, Edmara T.P. Bergamo, Sérgio Mazurek Tebcherani, Lukasz Witek, Paulo G. Coelho, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Gilmar P. Thim, Estevam A. Bonfante

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to develop a recycling process for the remnants of milled 3Y-TZP and enhance their properties using glass infiltration. 3Y-TZP powder was gathered from the vacuum system of CAD–CAM milling equipment, calcined and sieved (x < 75 μm). One hundred twenty discs were fabricated and pre-sintered at 1000 °C/h. These specimens were then divided into four groups, categorized by glass infiltration (non-infiltrated [Zr] or glass-infiltrated [Zr-G]) and sintering temperature (1450 °C [Zr-1450] or 1550 °C [Zr-1550]/2h). After sintering, the specimens were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), relative density measurement, and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The biaxial flexural strength test was performed according to the ISO 6872 and followed by fractographic analysis. Subsequent results were analyzed using Weibull statistics. Relative density values of the sintered specimens from Zr-1450 and Zr-1550 groups were 86.7 ± 1.5% and 92.2 ± 1.7%, respectively. Particle size distribution revealed particles within the range of 0.1–100 μm. XRD analysis highlighted the presence of the ZrO2-tetragonal in both the Zr-1450 and Zr-1550 groups. Glass infiltration, however, led to the formation of the ZrO2-monoclinic of 9.84% (Zr-1450-G) and 18.34% (Zr-1550-G). SEM micrographs demonstrated similar microstructural characteristics for Zr-1450 and Zr-1550, whereas the glass-infiltrated groups exhibited comparable infiltration patterns. The highest characteristic strength was observed in the glass-infiltrated groups. Fractographic analyses suggested that fracture origins were related to defects on the tensile side, which propagated to the compression side of the samples. Both the sintering temperature and glass infiltration significantly influenced the mechanical properties of the 3Y-TZP recycled.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106311
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • Glass
  • Mechanical properties
  • Recycling
  • Zirconia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials


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