TY - JOUR

T1 - Model-independent properties and cosmological implications of the dilaton and moduli sectors of 4D strings

AU - de Carlos, B.

AU - Casas, J. A.

AU - Quevedo, F.

AU - Roulet, E.

PY - 1993/12/9

Y1 - 1993/12/9

N2 - We show that if there is a realistic 4D string, the dilaton and moduli supermultiplets will generically acquire a small mass ∼ O(m 3 2), providing the only vacuum-independent evidence of low-energy physics in string theory beyond the supersymmetric standard model. The only assumptions behind this result are (i) softly broken supersymmetry at low energies with zero cosmological constant, (ii) these particles interact with gravitational strength and the scalar components have a flat potential in perturbation theory, which are well-known properties of string theories. (iii) They acquire a VEV of the order of the Planck scale (as required for the correct value of the gauge coupling constants and the expected compactification scale) after supersymmetry gets broken. We explore the cosmological implications of these particles. Similar to the gravitino, the fermionic states may overclose the Universe if they are stable or destroy nucleosynthesis if they decay unless their masses belong to a certain range or inflation dilutes them. For the scalar states it is known that the problem cannot be entirely solved by inflation, since oscillations around the minimum of the potential, rather than thermal production, are the main source for their energy and can lead to a huge entropy generation at late times. We discuss some possible ways to alleviate this entropy problem, that favour low-temperature baryogenesis, and also comment on the possible role of these particles as dark matter candidates or as sources of the baryon asymmetry through their decay.

AB - We show that if there is a realistic 4D string, the dilaton and moduli supermultiplets will generically acquire a small mass ∼ O(m 3 2), providing the only vacuum-independent evidence of low-energy physics in string theory beyond the supersymmetric standard model. The only assumptions behind this result are (i) softly broken supersymmetry at low energies with zero cosmological constant, (ii) these particles interact with gravitational strength and the scalar components have a flat potential in perturbation theory, which are well-known properties of string theories. (iii) They acquire a VEV of the order of the Planck scale (as required for the correct value of the gauge coupling constants and the expected compactification scale) after supersymmetry gets broken. We explore the cosmological implications of these particles. Similar to the gravitino, the fermionic states may overclose the Universe if they are stable or destroy nucleosynthesis if they decay unless their masses belong to a certain range or inflation dilutes them. For the scalar states it is known that the problem cannot be entirely solved by inflation, since oscillations around the minimum of the potential, rather than thermal production, are the main source for their energy and can lead to a huge entropy generation at late times. We discuss some possible ways to alleviate this entropy problem, that favour low-temperature baryogenesis, and also comment on the possible role of these particles as dark matter candidates or as sources of the baryon asymmetry through their decay.

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U2 - 10.1016/0370-2693(93)91538-X

DO - 10.1016/0370-2693(93)91538-X

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:13844322798

SN - 0370-2693

VL - 318

SP - 447

EP - 456

JO - Physics Letters B

JF - Physics Letters B

IS - 3

ER -