Modeling the effects of adjustment programs on income distribution

François Bourguignon, Jaime De Melo, Akiko Suwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper introduces the general structure of the "micro-macro" economywide simulation model ("maquette") used in several case studies on the impact of adjustment policies on the distribution of income. The description of the maquette emphasizes how the short- and medium-run effects of adjustment packages are incorporated in a general equilibrium model and explains the common structure and variants in the specification and estimation of relationships in product, factor, financial, and foreign exchange markets. Simulations are used to illustrate the role of differences in assumptions about market adjustment mechanisms (e.g., fix-price or flex-price, closed or open financial system) on the effects of adjustment policies on the distribution of income. Adjustment to an external shock through devaluation or through fiscal retrenchment is then contrasted for an economy with different degrees of financial and foreign trade openness. The simulations show that assumptions about macroeconomic closures and behavioral parameters matter a great deal in determining the productive and distributive effects of a shock and a country's adjustment to that shock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1527-1544
Number of pages18
JournalWorld Development
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Economics and Econometrics


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