Direct electrical stimulation can modulate the activity of brain networks for the treatment of several neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders and for restoring lost function. However, precise neuromodulation in an individual requires the accurate modelling and prediction of the effects of stimulation on the activity of their large-scale brain networks. Here, we report the development of dynamic input–output models that predict multiregional dynamics of brain networks in response to temporally varying patterns of ongoing microstimulation. In experiments with two awake rhesus macaques, we show that the activities of brain networks are modulated by changes in both stimulation amplitude and frequency, that they exhibit damping and oscillatory response dynamics, and that variabilities in prediction accuracy and in estimated response strength across brain regions can be explained by an at-rest functional connectivity measure computed without stimulation. Input–output models of brain dynamics may enable precise neuromodulation for the treatment of disease and facilitate the investigation of the functional organization of large-scale brain networks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications