Morphine synthesis and biosynthesis - An update

Bennett H. Novak, Tomas Hudlicky, Josephine W. Reed, Johann Mulzer, Dirk Trauner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This review covers recent developments in the area of morphine synthesis and biosynthesis. Literature is reviewed since the publication of the last major review. The first part of the chapter discusses recent advancements in biosynthesis of morphine alkaloids. Total syntheses published since 1996 are reviewed next and the third section discusses all published approaches to morphine skeleton. At the end of the chapter, an additional reference list is provided for synthesis of medicinally important derivatives, improvements in alkoloid interconversion, as well as a list of all dissertations dealing with morphine synthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)343-362
Number of pages20
JournalCurrent Organic Chemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry


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