Motivation and patch treatment for HIV+ smokers: A randomized controlled trial

Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson, Cassandra A. Stanton, George D. Papandonatos, William G. Shadel, Michael Stein, Karen Tashima, Timothy Flanigan, Kathleen Morrow, Charles Neighbors, Raymond Niaura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in a HIV positive (HIV+) sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV+ smoker referrals from eight immunology clinics in the northeastern United States. Participants A total of 444 participants enrolled in the study (mean age = 42.07 years; 63.28% male; 51.80% European American; mean cigarettes/day = 18.27). Interventions SC participants received two brief sessions with a health educator. Those setting a quit date received self-help quitting materials and NRT. ME participants received four sessions of motivational counseling and a quit-day counseling call. All ME intervention materials were tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. Measurements Biochemically verified 7-day abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups. Findings Intent-to-treat (ITT) abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups were 12%, 9% and 9%, respectively, in the ME condition, and 13%, 10% and 10%, respectively, in the SC condition, indicating no between-group differences. Among 412 participants with treatment utilization data, 6-month ITT abstinence rates were associated positively with low nicotine dependence (P = 0.02), high motivation to quit (P = 0.04) and Hispanic American race/ethnicity (P = 0.02). Adjusting for these variables, each additional NRT contact improved the odds of smoking abstinence by a third (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.99-1.75). Conclusions Motivationally enhanced treatment plus NRT did not improve cessation rates over and above standard care treatment plus NRT in this HIV+ sample of smokers. Providers offering brief support and encouraging use of nicotine replacement may be able to help HIV+ patients to quit smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1891-1900
Number of pages10
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • HIV
  • HIV positive
  • Health disparities
  • Nicotine replacement
  • Smoking cessation
  • Tobacco cessation
  • Transtheoretical Model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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