My country, right or wrong: Does activating system justification motivation eliminate the liberal-conservative gap in patriotism?

Jojanneke Van der Toorn, Paul R. Nail, Ido Liviatan, John T. Jost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Ideological differences in nationalism and patriotism are well-known and frequently exploited, but the question of why conservatives exhibit stronger national attachment than liberals has been inadequately addressed. Drawing on theories of system justification and political ideology as motivated social cognition, we proposed that increased patriotism is one means of satisfying the system justification goal. Thus, we hypothesized that temporarily activating system justification motivation should raise national attachment among liberals to the level of conservatives. Three experiments conducted in New York, Arkansas, and Wisconsin support this hypothesis. In the first two experiments, liberals exhibited weaker national attachment than conservatives in the absence of system justification activation, consistent with prior research. However, exposure to system criticism (Experiment 1) and system-level injustice (Experiment 2) caused liberals to strengthen their national attachment, eliminating the ideological gap. Using a system dependence manipulation in Experiment 3, this pattern was conceptually replicated with respect to patriotic but not nationalistic attachment, as hypothesized. Thus, chronic and temporary variability in system justification motivation helps to explain when liberals and conservatives do (and do not) differ in terms of national attachment and why.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-60
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Experimental Social Psychology
Volume54
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2014

Keywords

  • Motivation
  • Nationalism
  • Patriotism
  • Political ideology
  • System justification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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