Nanometer-scale features on micrometer-scale surface texturing: A bone histological, gene expression, and nanomechanical study

Paulo G. Coelho, Tadahiro Takayama, Daniel Yoo, Ryo Jimbo, Sanjay Karunagaran, Nick Tovar, Malvin N. Janal, Seiichi Yamano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Micro- and nanoscale surface modifications have been the focus of multiple studies in the pursuit of accelerating bone apposition or osseointegration at the implant surface. Here, we evaluated histological and nanomechanical properties, and gene expression, for a microblasted surface presenting nanometer-scale texture within a micrometer-scale texture (MB) (Ossean™ Surface, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) versus a dual-acid etched surface presenting texture at the micrometer-scale only (AA), in a rodent femur model for 1, 2, 4, and 8. weeks in vivo. Following animal sacrifice, samples were evaluated in terms of histomorphometry, biomechanical properties through nanoindentation, and gene expression by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Although the histomorphometric, and gene expression analysis results were not significantly different between MB and AA at 4 and 8. weeks, significant differences were seen at 1 and 2. weeks. The expression of the genes encoding collagen type I (COL-1), and osteopontin (OPN) was significantly higher for MB than for AA at 1. week, indicating up-regulated osteoprogenitor and osteoblast differentiation. At 2. weeks, significantly up-regulated expression of the genes for COL-1, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osterix, and osteocalcin (OCN) indicated progressive mineralization in newly formed bone. The nanomechanical properties tested by the nanoindentation presented significantly higher-rank hardness and elastic modulus for the MB compared to AA at all time points tested. In conclusion, the nanotopographical featured surfaces presented an overall higher host-to-implant response compared to the microtextured only surfaces. The statistical differences observed in some of the osteogenic gene expression between the two groups may shed some insight into the role of surface texture and its extent in the observed bone healing mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-32
Number of pages8
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Gene expression
  • Nanomechanics
  • Nanotopography
  • Osseointegration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Histology


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