Background: Nanotechnology has made inroads over time within surgery and medicine. Translational medical devices and therapies based on nanotechnology are being developed and put into practice. In plastic surgery, it is anticipated that this new technology may be instrumental in the future. Microelectromechanical systems are one form of nanotechnology that offers the ability to develop miniaturized implants for use in the treatment of numerous clinical conditions. The authors summarize their published preliminary findings regarding a microelectromechanical systems-based electrochemical stimulation method through modulation of ions around the nerve that is potentially implantable and clinically efficacious, and expand upon current and potential usages of nanotechnology in plastic surgery. Methods: Sciatic nerves (n = 100) of 50 American bullfrogs were placed on a microfabricated planar gold electrode array and stimulated electrically. Using Ca-selective membranes, ion concentrations were modulated around the nerve environment in situ. In addition, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed to identify all available data pertaining to the use of nanotechnology in medicine. Results: A 40 percent reduction of the electrical threshold value was observed using the Ca ion-selective membrane. The uses of nanotechnology specifically applicable to plastic surgery are detailed. Conclusions: Nanotechnology may likely lead to advancements in the art and science of plastic surgery. Using microelectromechanical systems nanotechnology, the authors have demonstrated a novel means of modulating the activation of nerve impulses. These findings have potentially significant implications for the design of special nano-enhanced materials that can be used to promote healing, control infection, restore function, and aid nerve regeneration and rehabilitation.
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