Neanderthals are the best represented and most studied group in the fossil human record. The relatively large number of Neanderthal fossils and their good preservation offers the possibility of robust inferences about their evolution and paleobiology. Nevertheless, debate still continues on important issues, and this suggests that deeper theoretical and methodological differences lie at the root of the lack of consensus. Such disagreements are not likely to be resolved by additional fossil findings, but rather require critical re-evaluation of the evidence at hand and the application of novel techniques and perspectives. This is the premise and main goal of this volume. The major debates in Neanderthal research are re-examined with the use of innovative state-of-the art methods and exciting new theoretical and conceptual approaches. The diverse contributions presented here offer fresh insights and advances that move us closer to reaching a consensus.