## Abstract

We initiate the study of numerical linear algebra in the sliding window model, where only the most recent W updates in a stream form the underlying data set. Although many existing algorithms in the sliding window model use or borrow elements from the smooth histogram framework (Braverman and Ostrovsky, FOCS 2007), we show that many interesting linear-algebraic problems, including spectral and vector induced matrix norms, generalized regression, and low-rank approximation, are not amenable to this approach in the row-arrival model. To overcome this challenge, we first introduce a unified row-sampling based framework that gives randomized algorithms for spectral approximation, low-rank approximation/projection-cost preservation, and ell {1}-subspace embeddings in the sliding window model, which often use nearly optimal space and achieve nearly input sparsity runtime. Our algorithms are based on'reverse online' versions of offline sampling distributions such as (ridge) leverage scores, ell {1} sensitivities, and Lewis weights to quantify both the importance and the recency of a row; our structural results on these distributions may be of independent interest for future algorithmic design. Although our techniques initially address numerical linear algebra in the sliding window model, our row-sampling framework rather surprisingly implies connections to the well-studied online model; our structural results also give the first sample optimal (up to lower order terms) online algorithm for low-rank approximation/projection-cost preservation. Using this powerful primitive, we give online algorithms for column/row subset selection and principal component analysis that resolves the main open question of Bhaskara et al. (FOCS 2019). We also give the first online algorithm for ell {1}-subspace embeddings. We further formalize the connection between the online model and the sliding window model by introducing an additional unified framework for deterministic algorithms using a merge and reduce paradigm and the concept of online coresets, which we define as a weighted subset of rows of the input matrix that can be used to compute a good approximation to some given function on all of its prefixes. Our sampling based algorithms in the row-arrival online model yield online coresets, giving deterministic algorithms for spectral approximation, low-rank approximation/projection-cost preservation, and ell {1}-subspace embeddings in the sliding window model that use nearly optimal space.

Original language | English (US) |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings - 2020 IEEE 61st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2020 |

Publisher | IEEE Computer Society |

Pages | 517-528 |

Number of pages | 12 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9781728196213 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Nov 2020 |

Event | 61st IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2020 - Virtual, Durham, United States Duration: Nov 16 2020 → Nov 19 2020 |

### Publication series

Name | Proceedings - Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS |
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Volume | 2020-November |

ISSN (Print) | 0272-5428 |

### Conference

Conference | 61st IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2020 |
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Country/Territory | United States |

City | Virtual, Durham |

Period | 11/16/20 → 11/19/20 |

## Keywords

- numerical linear algebra
- online algorithms
- sliding window model
- streaming algorithms

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Computer Science(all)