Near-Optimal Method for Siting and Sizing of Distributed Storage in a Transmission Network

Hrvoje Pandzic, Yishen Wang, Ting Qiu, Yury Dvorkin, Daniel S. Kirschen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Energy storage can alleviate the problems that the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy sources such as wind and solar create in power systems. Besides applications such as frequency control, temporal arbitrage or the provision of reserve, where the location of storage is not particularly relevant, distributed storage could also be used to alleviate congestion in the transmission network. In such cases, the siting and sizing of this distributed storage is of crucial importance to its cost-effectiveness. This paper describes a three-stage planning procedure to identify the optimal locations and parameters of distributed storage units. In the first stage, the optimal storage locations and parameters are determined for each day of the year individually. In the second stage, a number of storage units is available at the locations that were identified as being optimal in the first stage, and their optimal energy and power ratings are determined. Finally, in the third stage, with both the locations and ratings fixed, the optimal operation of the storage units is simulated to quantify the benefits that they would provide by reducing congestion. The quality of the final solution is assessed by comparing it with the solution obtained at the first stage without constraints on storage sites or size. The approach is numerically tested on the IEEE RTS 96.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6936940
Pages (from-to)2288-2300
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • Energy storage
  • mixed-integer linear programming
  • storage siting
  • storage sizing
  • unit commitment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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