New insight into role of myosin motors for activation of RNA polymerases

Aishe A. Sarshad, Piergiorgio Percipalle

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, actin and myosin are emerging as essential regulators of nuclear function. At gene level, they regulate chromatin and modulate RNA polymerase transcription, and at the RNA level, they are involved in the metabolism of ribonucleoprotein complexes. Furthermore, actin and myosin are involved in maintaining the structure of cell nucleus by mediating chromatin movement and by interacting with components of the nuclear lamina. This plethora of functions is now supported by evidence that nuclear actin polymerizes just like the cytoplasmic actin fraction. Based on these considerations, we now hypothesize that the nuclear myosin forms function as actin-based motors. In this chapter, our goal is to start from the knowledge acquired in the cytoplasmic field to explore how nuclear myosin functions in gene transcription. One of the pressing issues discussed here is whether nuclear myosin produces local tension or functions as transporters. Based on two current models reported in the literature, we discuss the topology of the actin-based nuclear myosin 1 motor and how it is believed to facilitate propulsion of the RNA polymerase machinery while maintaining chromatin that is compatible with transcription. These mechanisms will be placed in the context of cell cycle progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages183-230
Number of pages48
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Publication series

NameInternational Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Volume311
ISSN (Print)1937-6448

Keywords

  • Gene transcription
  • Myosin motors
  • Nuclear myosin
  • RNA polymerases
  • Ribonucleoprotein complexes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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