Nicotine replacement therapy: Patterns of use after A quit attempt among methadone- maintained smokers

Michael D. Stein, Bradley J. Anderson, Raymond Niaura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


AIM: To determine the association between daily smoking and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and to determine predictors of greater NRT use among methadone-matntained smokers. INTERVENTION: Assignment to free nicotine patch (8 to 12 weeks) plus either (1) a baseline-tailored brief motivational intervention, a quit date behavioral skills counseling session, and a relapse prevention follow-up session (max), or (2) brief advice using NCI's 4 A's model (min). SETTING: Five methadone maintenance treatment centers. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 383 methadone-maintained smokers enrolled, 309 (80.6%) set a specific quit date (received NRT) and were located for assessments. Participants were 51.8% male, 78.6% Caucasian, and smoked 26.6 (SD =12.2) cigarettes/day. OUTCOME: Use of NRT and smoking behaviors during the 180-day follow-up period assessed by the Timeline follow-back method. FINDINGS: On the day following their quit day, 86.4% of participants used NRT. The percentage of participants using NRT was 52.3%, 27.1%, and 10.4% on day 30, day 60, and day 90, respectively. Participants used NRT on 44.1% of the days through the 90 days of the treatment protocol. The estimated odds of smoking abstinence was 7.1 (P<.001) times higher on days when NRT was used than on days when NRT was not used, and cigarettes/day was also significantly lower on NRT days (14.93 vs 4.65; P<.001). CONCLUSION: Nicotine replacement therapy use was inconsistent following an initial quit attempt among methadone-maintained smokers. On days when NRT was used, individuals were likely to smoke at reduced levels or not at all.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)753-757
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2006


  • Adherence
  • Clinical trial
  • Methadone maintenance
  • Nicotine replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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