Nightly Variation in Sleep Influences Self-efficacy for Adhering to a Healthy Lifestyle: A Prospective Study

Lora E. Burke, Christopher E. Kline, Dara D. Mendez, Saul Shiffman, Eileen R. Chasens, Yaguang Zheng, Christopher C. Imes, Mia I. Cajita, Linda Ewing, Rachel Goode, Meghan Mattos, Jacob K. Kariuki, Andrea Kriska, Stephen L. Rathbun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Self-efficacy, or the perceived capability to engage in a behavior, has been shown to play an important role in adhering to weight loss treatment. Given that adherence is extremely important for successful weight loss outcomes and that sleep and self-efficacy are modifiable factors in this relationship, we examined the association between sleep and self-efficacy for adhering to the daily plan. Investigators examined whether various dimensions of sleep were associated with self-efficacy for adhering to the daily recommended lifestyle plan among participants (N = 150) in a 12-month weight loss study. Method: This study was a secondary analysis of data from a 12-month prospective observational study that included a standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Daily assessments at the beginning of day (BOD) of self-efficacy and the previous night’s sleep were collected in real-time using ecological momentary assessment. Results: The analysis included 44,613 BOD assessments. On average, participants reported sleeping for 6.93 ± 1.28 h, reported 1.56 ± 3.54 awakenings, and gave low ratings for trouble sleeping (3.11 ± 2.58; 0: no trouble; 10: a lot of trouble) and mid-high ratings for sleep quality (6.45 ± 2.09; 0: poor; 10: excellent). Participants woke up feeling tired 41.7% of the time. Using linear mixed effects modeling, a better rating in each sleep dimension was associated with higher self-efficacy the following day (all p values <.001). Conclusion: Our findings supported the hypothesis that better sleep would be associated with higher levels of reported self-efficacy for adhering to the healthy lifestyle plan.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-386
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Ecological momentary assessment (EMA)
  • Self-efficacy
  • Sleep
  • Weight loss
  • Self Efficacy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Weight Loss
  • Healthy Lifestyle
  • Humans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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