Noncommunicable diseases among HIV-infected persons in low-income and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Pragna Patel, Charles E. Rose, Pamela Y. Collins, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Vikrant V. Sahasrabuddhe, Emmanuel Peprah, Susan Vorkoper, Sonak D. Pastakia, Dianne Rausch, Naomi S. Levitt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective: To appropriately identify and treat noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), it is imperative to understand the burden of NCDs among PLHIV in LMICs and the current management of the diseases. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We examined peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016 to assess currently available evidence regarding HIV and four selected NCDs (cardiovascular disease, cervical cancer, depression, and diabetes) in LMICs with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. The databases, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Review, and Scopus, were searched to identify relevant literature. For conditions with adequate data available, pooled estimates for prevalence were generated using random fixed effects models. Results: Six thousand one hundred and forty-three abstracts were reviewed, 377 had potentially relevant prevalence data and 141 were included in the summary; 57 were selected for quantitative analysis. Pooled estimates for NCD prevalence were hypertension 21.2% (95% CI 16.3-27.1), hypercholesterolemia 22.2% (95% CI 14.7-32.1), elevated low-density lipoprotein 23.2% (95% CI 15.2-33.6), hypertriglyceridemia 27.2% (95% CI 20.7-34.8), low high-density lipoprotein 52.3% (95% CI 35.6-62.8), obesity 7.8% (95% CI 4.3-13.9), and depression 24.4% (95% CI 12.5-42.1). Invasive cervical cancer and diabetes prevalence were 1.3-1.7 and 1.3-18%, respectively. Few NCD-HIV integrated programs with screening and management approaches that are contextually appropriate for resource-limited settings exist. Conclusion: Improved data collection and surveillance of NCDs among PLHIV in LMICs are necessary to inform integrated HIV/NCD care models. Although efforts to integrate care exist, further research is needed to optimize the efficacy of these programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S5-S20
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018


  • HIV
  • health systems
  • integration
  • low-income and middle-income countries
  • noncommunicable disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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