This chapter emphasizes on tunneling spectroscopy, which one might define, roughly, as any measurement giving structure, however weak, as a function of the injection energy eV. Normally, of course, one measures the tunneling conductance G(V) or its derivative with respect to V, perhaps in the presence, additionally, of a magnetic field or stress, to clarify the origin of energy-dependent structure. Such measurements are usually made near 4.2 K, even when a normal metal counterelectrode is used, because the resolution of the spectroscopy is limited by thermal energy kBT. The apparent exclusion of superconductivity in the title may thus appear misleading; on the other hand, this chapter does not consider such purely superconductive phenomena as gap anisotropy, vortex properties, quasiparticle lifetimes, and the whole range of Josephson effects, that certainly comprise a separate field. These topics have been reviewed in the recent book by L. Solymar, to which the present article is complementary in a sense, although it attempts a rather greater depth in treatment of the physical content of material, at some expense in exhaustive bibliography. Nevertheless, it discusses the phenomenon of spin-split superconductivity as a means of determining the spin polarization in magnetic electrodes, the superconducting proximity effect as a specific strategy for studying magnetic interactions and other properties of the normal state, and several superconducting materials of an unusual nature.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||91|
|Journal||Solid State Physics - Advances in Research and Applications|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1975|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)