Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment of Endosteal Implants for Osseointegration and Antimicrobial Efficacy: A Comprehensive Review

Sogand Schafer, Tina Swain, Marcelo Parra, Blaire V. Slavin, Nicholas A. Mirsky, Vasudev Vivekanand Nayak, Lukasz Witek, Paulo Coelho

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The energy state of endosteal implants is dependent on the material, manufacturing technique, cleaning procedure, sterilization method, and surgical manipulation. An implant surface carrying a positive charge renders hydrophilic properties, thereby facilitating the absorption of vital plasma proteins crucial for osteogenic interactions. Techniques to control the surface charge involve processes like oxidation, chemical and topographical adjustments as well as the application of nonthermal plasma (NTP) treatment. NTP at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature can induce chemical and/or physical reactions that enhance wettability through surface energy changes. NTP has thus been used to modify the oxide layer of endosteal implants that interface with adjacent tissue cells and proteins. Results have indicated that if applied prior to implantation, NTP strengthens the interaction with surrounding hard tissue structures during the critical phases of early healing, thereby promoting rapid bone formation. Also, during this time period, NTP has been found to result in enhanced biomechanical fixation. As such, the application of NTP may serve as a practical and reliable method to improve healing outcomes. This review aims to provide an in-depth exploration of the parameters to be considered in the application of NTP on endosteal implants. In addition, the short- and long-term effects of NTP on osseointegration are addressed, as well as recent advances in the utilization of NTP in the treatment of periodontal disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number320
JournalBioengineering
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Keywords

  • atmospheric pressure plasma
  • cold plasma
  • disinfection
  • nonthermal plasma
  • osseointegration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering

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