Novel vision restoration techniques: 3D bioprinting, gene and stem cell therapy, optogenetics, and the bionic eye

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Vision restoration has been one of the most sought-after goals of ophthalmology because of its inception. Despite these problems being tackled from numerous different perspectives, a concrete solution has not yet been achieved. An optimal solution will have significant implications on the patient's quality of life, socioeconomic status, and mental health. Methods: This article will explore new and innovative approaches with one common aim—to restore functional vision for the visually impaired. These novel techniques include 3D bioprinting, stem cell therapy, gene therapy, implantable devices, and optogenetics. Results: While the techniques mentioned above show significant promise, they are currently in various stages of development ranging from clinical trials to commercial availability. Restoration of minimal vision in specific cases has already been achieved by the different methods but optimization of different parameters like biocompatibility, spatiotemporal resolution, and minimizing the costs are essential for widespread use. Conclusion: The developments over the past decade have resulted in multiple milestones in each of the techniques with many solutions getting approved by the FDA. This article will compare these novel techniques and highlight the major advantages and drawbacks of each of them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalArtificial Organs
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • 3D bioprinting
  • blindness
  • eye
  • gene therapy
  • optogenetics
  • stem cell therapy
  • vision restoration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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