Nuclear-quadrupole-induced electric signals are measured as a new resonance response mechanism that is the reciprocal of the Stark effect in magnetic resonance. In single crystals that have noncentrosymmetry with respect to the sites of precessing nuclear-quadrupole moments, the electronic polarizability of atoms and chemical bonds on opposite sides of the nuclear-quadrupole moment is not the same. The oscillating electric field produced by the quadrupole moment induces a net electric dipole moment in its neighboring electronic environment. The coherent summation of these dipole moments over the Boltzmann distribution of the nuclear ensemble produces an oscillating macroscopic electric dipole moment. The sample is placed between the plates of a capacitor that is tuned with an inductance to the nuclear precession frequency. Coherent nuclear precession is initiated following a rf magnetic field pulse that tips the nuclear spins into the precession mode. The voltage signal from the capacitor gives rise to an oscillating current in the series circuit and magnetic flux in the inductor. Stray magnetic induction pickup signals are balanced out. The flux is coupled to a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which produces a voltage output at the nuclear-quadrupole resonance frequency of 30 MHz for Cl35 nuclei in NaClO3 at 4.2 K. The Cl35 nucleus induces electric dipole moments in nearby oxygen atoms bonded to the Cl atom. Measured free-precession electric signals are compared to the predictions of a point-oxygen-atom polarizability model applied to the CO bond. The technique is sensitive to chirality and to bond angles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics