Evidence is provided that nucleophilic attack on five-membered ring oxocarbenium ions occurs from the inside face of the envelope. An eight-five fused-bicyclic system in which two substituents are constrained to pseudoequatorial positions underwent nucleophilic addition with selectivity that was comparable to an unconstrained monocyclic system. On the other hand, a bicyclic six-five analogue underwent reaction with low selectivity. This observation indicates that minimization of eclipsing interactions by attacking inside the envelope is not enough to control selectivity, but that the changes in the overall three-dimensional structure of the ring must be favorable as well. In the bicyclic six-five series, the six-membered ring is accommodated in the cation, but it destabilizes the transition state structure leading to the first-formed product of inside attack.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry