Among most animals with internal fertilization, females store sperm in specific regions of their reproductive tract for later use. Sperm storage enables prolonged fertility, physical and temporal separation of mating from fertilization and, when females mate with multiple males, opportunities for differential use of the various males' sperm. Thus, stored sperm move within the female reproductive tract as well as to several potential fates - fertilization, displacement by other sperm or ejection by the female. Drosophila melanogaster is a leading model system for elucidating both the mechanisms and evolutionary consequences of female sperm storage and differential male fertilization success. The prominence of Drosophila is due, in part, to the ability to examine processes influencing sperm movement and fate at several biological levels, from molecules to organ systems. In this review, we describe male and female factors, as well as their interactions, involved in female sperm storage and differential male fertilization success.