On 3-by-3 row stochastic matrices

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The known constructive tests for the shapes of the numerical ranges in the 3-by-3 case are further specified when the matrices in question are row stochastic. Auxiliary results on the unitary (ir)reducibility of such matrices are also obtained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20230103
JournalSpecial Matrices
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • Kippenhahn curve
  • numerical range
  • row stochastic matrix
  • unitary reducibility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Algebra and Number Theory
  • Geometry and Topology


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