On the security of a practical identification

Scheme Victor Shoup

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We analyze the security of an interactive identification scheme. The scheme is the obvious extension of the original square root scheme of Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff to 2mth roots. This scheme is quite practical, especially in terms of storage and communication complexity. Although this scheme is certainly not new, its security was apparently not fully understood. We prove that this scheme is secure if factoring integers is hard, even against active attacks where the adversary is first allowed to pose as a verifier before attempting impersonation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-260
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Cryptology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1999


  • Identification scheme
  • Proof of security
  • Zero knowledge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics


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