Optimal PMU Restoration for Power System Observability Recovery after Massive Attacks

Shamsun Nahar Edib, Yuzhang Lin, Vinod M. Vokkarane, Feng Qiu, Rui Yao, Dongbo Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cyber-physically resilient power system operation requires rapid recovery of situational awareness after disastrous scenarios such as massive cyber attacks. In this article, the concept of optimal sequential restoration of Phasor Measurement Units is introduced, aiming at rapid recovery of power system observability in post-attack scenarios. The observability recovery problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming problem to maximize the cumulative observability level gained over time during the restoration process. Three alternative objective functions - maximizing the number of observable buses, the number of observable branches, and the total amount of observable power flow - are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed optimal strategy is verified by comparing it with heuristic approaches on the IEEE 57-bus system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9215000
Pages (from-to)1565-1576
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Cyber-physical system
  • observability
  • phasor measurement unit
  • power system restoration
  • resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science


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