Osseointegration on metallic implant surfaces: Effects of microgeometry and growth factor treatment

Sally R. Frenkel, Jordan Simon, Harold Alexander, Michael Dennis, John L. Ricci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Orthopedic implants often loosen due to the invasion of fibrous tissue. The aim of this study was to devise a novel implant surface that would speed healing adjacent to the surface, and create a stable interface for bone integration, by using a chemoattractant for bone precursor cells, and by controlling tissue migration at implant surfaces via specific surface microgeometry design. Experimental surfaces were tested in a canine implantable chamber that simulates the intramedullary bone response around total joint implants. Titanium and alloy surfaces were prepared with specific microgeometries, designed to optimize tissue attachment and control fibrous encapsulation. TGFβ, a mitogen and chemoattractant (Hunziker EB, Rosenberg LC. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996;78:721-733) for osteoprogenitor cells, was used to recruit progenitor cells to the implant surface and to enhance their proliferation. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CS) was the delivery vehicle for TGFβ; CS resorbs rapidly and appears to be osteoconductive. Animals were sacrificed at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Results indicated that TGFβ can be reliably released in an active form from a calcium sulfate carrier in vivo. The growth factor had a significant effect on bone ingrowth into implant channels at an early time period, although this effect was not seen with higher doses at later periods. Adjustment of dosage should render TGFβ more potent at later time periods. Calcium sulfate treatment without TGFβ resulted in a significant increase in bone ingrowth throughout the 12-week time period studied. Bone response to the microgrooved surfaces was dramatic, causing greater ingrowth in 9 of the 12 experimental conditions. Microgrooves also enhanced the mechanical strength of CS-coated specimens. The grooved surface was able to control the direction of ingrowth. This surface treatment may result in a clinically valuable implant design to induce rapid ingrowth and a strong bone-implant interface, contributing to implant longevity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)706-713
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Volume63
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2002

Keywords

  • Animal model
  • Growth factor
  • Implant loosening
  • Joint prosthesis
  • Textured surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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