Overview of ionospheric modification by high frequency (HF) heaters-theory

Spencer P. Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The scenarios of achieving effective ionospheric modification are summarized and the likely physical processes engaging linear and nonlinear mode conversions through plasma inhomogeneity and nonlinearity are revealed. Parametric instabilities, which are the directly relevant processes to achieve effective heating of the ionospheric F region, are formulated and analyzed. The threshold fields and growth rates of instabilities are obtained. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation governing the nonlinear evolution of Langmuir waves is derived and analyzed. The nonlinear periodic and solitary solutions of the equation are obtained. The analyses illustrate the conditions for the generation of Langmuir soliton and nonlinear periodic Langmuir waves.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-155
Number of pages15
JournalProgress In Electromagnetics Research B
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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