P1 Center Electron Spin Clusters Are Prevalent in Type Ib Diamonds

Santiago Bussandri, Daphna Shimon, Asif Equbal, Yuhang Ren, Susumu Takahashi, Chandrasekhar Ramanathan, Songi Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Understanding the spatial distribution of the P1 centers is crucial for diamond-based sensors and quantum devices. P1 centers serve as polarization sources for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) quantum sensing and play a significant role in the relaxation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. Additionally, the distribution of NV centers correlates with the distribution of P1 centers, as NV centers are formed through the conversion of P1 centers. We utilized DNP and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques that revealed strong clustering of a significant population of P1 centers that exhibit exchange coupling and produce asymmetric line shapes. The 13C DNP frequency profile at a high magnetic field revealed a pattern that requires an asymmetric EPR line shape of the P1 clusters with electron-electron (e-e) coupling strengths exceeding the 13C nuclear Larmor frequency. EPR and DNP characterization at high magnetic fields was necessary to resolve energy contributions from different e-e couplings. We employed a two-frequency pump-probe pulsed electron double resonance technique to show cross-talk between the isolated and clustered P1 centers. This finding implies that the clustered P1 centers affect all of the P1 populations. Direct observation of clustered P1 centers and their asymmetric line shape offers a novel and crucial insight into understanding magnetic noise sources for quantum information applications of diamonds and for designing diamond-based polarizing agents with optimized DNP efficiency for 13C and other nuclear spins of analytes. We propose that room temperature 13C DNP at a high field, achievable through straightforward modifications to existing solution-state NMR systems, is a potent tool for evaluating and controlling diamond defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5088-5099
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number8
StatePublished - Feb 28 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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