p21(WAF1/CIP1) is upregulated by the geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 through a transforming growth factor β- and Sp1- responsive element: Involvement of the small GTPase RhoA

Jalila Adnane, Francisco A. Bizouarn, Yimin Qian, Andrew D. Hamilton, Saïd M. Sebti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We have recently reported that the geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 arrests human tumor cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and increases the protein and RNA levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). Here, we show that GGTI-298 acts at the transcriptional level to induce p21(WAF1/CIP1) in a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line, Panc-1. This upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter was selective since GGTI-298 inhibited serum responsive element- and E2F-mediated transcription. A functional analysis of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter showed that a GC-rich region located between positions -83 and -74, which contains a transforming growth factor β-responsive element and one Sp1-binding site, is sufficient for the upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter by GGTI-298. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed a small increase in the amount of DNA-bound Sp1- Sp3 complexes. Furthermore, the analysis of Sp1 transcriptional activity in GGTI-298-treated cells by using GAL4-Sp1 chimera or Sp1-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter revealed a significant increase in Sp1-mediated transcription. Moreover, GGTI-298 treatment also resulted in increased Sp1 and Sp3 phosphorylation. These results suggest that GGTI-298-mediated upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) involves both an increase in the amount of DNA-bound Sp1-Sp3 and enhancement of Sp1 transcriptional activity. To identify the geranylgeranylated protein(s) involved in p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcriptional activation, we analyzed the effects of the small GTPases Rac1 and RhoA on p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter activity. The dominant negative mutant of RhoA, but not Rac1, was able to activate p21(WAF1/CIP1). In contrast, constitutively active RhoA repressed p21(WAF1/CIP1). Accordingly, the ADP- ribosyl transferase C3, which specifically inhibits Rho proteins, enhanced the activity of p21(WAF1/CIP1). Taken together, these results suggest that one mechanism by which GGTI-298 upregulates p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcription is by preventing the small GTPase RhoA from repressing p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6962-6970
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular and cellular biology
Volume18
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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