Parallel imaging in cardiovascular MRI: Methods and applications

Thoralf Niendorf, Daniel K. Sodickson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cardiovascular MR imaging (CVMR) has become a valuable modality for the non-invasive detection and characterization of cardiovascular diseases. CVMR requires high imaging speed and efficiency, which is fundamentally limited in conventional cardiovascular MRI studies. With the introduction of parallel imaging, alternative means for increasing acquisition speed beyond these limits have become available. In parallel imaging some image data are acquired simultaneously, using RF detector coil sensitivities to encode simultaneous spatial information that complements the information gleaned from sequential application of magnetic field gradients. The resulting improvements in imaging speed can be used in various ways, including shortening long examinations, improving spatial resolution and/or anatomic coverage, improving temporal resolution, enhancing image quality, overcoming physiological constraints, detecting and correcting for physiologic motion, and streamlining work flow. Examples of each of these strategies will be provided in this review. First, basic principles and key concepts of parallel MR are described. Second, practical considerations such as coil array design, coil sensitivity calibrations, customized pulse sequences and tailored imaging parameters are outlined. Next, cardiovascular applications of parallel MR are reviewed, ranging from cardiac anatomical and functional assessment to myocardial perfusion and viability to MR angiography of the coronary arteries and the large vessels. Finally, current trends and future directions in parallel CVMR are considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-341
Number of pages17
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2006


  • Accelerated MRI
  • Cardiovascular MRI
  • Many element RF-coil arrays
  • Parallel imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


Dive into the research topics of 'Parallel imaging in cardiovascular MRI: Methods and applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this