Recent evidence from cerebellum-dependent motor learning and amygdala-dependent fear conditioning indicates that, despite being mediated by different brain systems, these forms of learning might use a similar sequence of events to form new memories. In each case, learning seems to induce changes in two different groups of neurons. Changes in the first class of cells are induced very rapidly during the initial stages of learning, whereas changes in the second class of cells develop more slowly and are resistant to extinction. So, anatomically distinct cell populations might contribute differentially to the initial encoding and the long-term storage of memory in these two systems.
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