Parents' reactions to transgender youths' gender nonconforming expression and identity

Arnold H. Grossman, Anthony R. D'Augelli, Tamika Jarrett Howell, Steven Hubbard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Fifty-five transgender youth described their gender development and expression, parents' reactions to their gender nonconformity, and initial and current mothers' and fathers' reactions to their transgender identity. All of the youth reported feeling different from others in early childhood. Forty-three of the participants' mothers and 26 of their fathers knew about their identities. The youth reported that 54% of their mothers and 63% of their fathers initially reacted negatively, and 50% of the mothers and 44% of their fathers reacted negatively at the time of the interviews, an average of 3 years later. The more gender nonconforming the youth, the more likely they reported that they were verbally and physically abused by their mothers and fathers. Implications of these findings for social service professionals are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-16
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 17 2006


  • Childhood abuse
  • Gender
  • Gender nonconformity
  • Parent
  • Transgender
  • Youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Sociology and Political Science


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